August 19, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 14
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is facing high rates of urbanization and increasing food insecurity. The informal food economy addresses food insecurity by providing access to affordable food and significant employment opportunities to the urban poor in the SSA.
August 13, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 48
At least US$87 billion is needed to support the prevention, care and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in low- and middle-income African countries between 2014 and 2016. Much of the financing for these diseases previously came from international sources; however, implementing countries are progressively graduating from international support as their economies grow.
August 6, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 13
The lines between civilian and military are increasingly blurred, creating ambiguity under international law when private contractors engage in offensive cyber-security operations on behalf of states. These private security companies (PSCs) are being contracted for cyber security to engage in offensive cyber operations, but states should not contract PSCs for offensive cyber operations.
July 29, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 47
Conflict in Somalia has caused millions to flee the country since 1990, many to Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camps, which have been in existence for 20 years and now hold over 520,000 refugees. To date, voluntary repatriation and local integration are not plausible durable solutions. This policy brief, authored by CIGI’s Hayley MacKinnon, sheds light on education within the Dadaab refugee camps, which still operate on an emergency basis by providing relief, but which fail to mobilize the resources required for longer-term development — known as the “relief-to-development” gap.
July 25, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 12
China’s growing economic standing suggests a power shift for the twenty-first-century global economy, as exemplified through the internationalization of China’s currency, the renminbi (RMB). RMB internationalization can fill China’s financial integration gap by promoting faster internal financial reforms, stronger interconnectivity between trade and finance, and greater economic responsibility.
July 21, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 46
The presidents and foreign ministers of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries met in Fortaleza, Brazil on July 15 and signed a formal agreement to create the BRICS-led bank called the New Development Bank (NDB). The NDB will focus its lending on infrastructure and sustainable development projects; however, these two priorities are at least partially incompatible.
July 17, 2014
Policy Brief No. 45
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which have guided African development priorities for the last 14 years, are being transitioned into a post-2015 framework with which the next stage in African development will be determined. This brief examines the African Union's recent Common African Position (CAP) on the post-2015 development agenda and compares this document to other publications that detail possible post-2015 development goals.
July 9, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 44
There is currently little prospect of a successful international agreement resulting in effective, legally binding emission targets and significant “new and additional finance transfers” to developing countries; however, there is room for Africa to formulate an effective strategy in climate change negotiations.
June 27, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 43
An important component of peace building in post-conflict areas is to determine who has national ownership, or the ultimate authority for setting and implementing policy priorities. While national ownership is now entrenched as a core tenet of UN engagement with fragile and war-affected states, what is less clear is how national ownership principles should be operationalized. This brief examines the conceptual issues and challenges that up until now have stood in the way of effectively putting national ownership principles into practice in actual peace-building situations, as well as to highlight emerging lessons and good practices with regard to respecting and facilitating national ownership.
June 13, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 42
Police reaction to recent protests in Bosnia has called attention to the stalled police reform. This brief provides a historical overview detailing the evolution of police structures and the reform attempts and provides recommendations for long-term effective police reform.