Bernard M. Hoekman is professor and director, global economics, at the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy. His prior positions include director of the International Trade Department and research manager in the Development Research Group of the World Bank. In addition to being a CIGI senior fellow, Bernard is a Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) research fellow, where he codirects the Trade Policy Research Network; a visiting professor at the School for Business, Management and Economics, University of Sussex; a senior associate of the Economic Research Forum for the Arab countries, Turkey and Iran; and a member of the World Economic Forum Global Future Council on International Trade and Investment. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan. Recent publications include The Global Trade Slowdown: A New Normal? (CEPR and EUI, 2015) and, with Petros Mavroidis, The World Trade Organization: Law, Economics and Politics (Routledge, 2016).