CIGI Papers

CIGI Papers present well-considered policy positions and/or research findings, insights or data relevant to policy debates and decision making. This category includes papers linked to particular projects or topic areas.

Crying over Spilt Milk: The History of Dairy Supply Management and Its Role in Recent Trade Negotiations

April 15, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 30
While supply management has been protected by Canadian governments, rising international pressure has led Canada to begin to reconsider its support, especially as bilateral trade negotiations and partners are unequivocally opposed to dairy supply management.

The Big Break: The Conservative Transformation of Canada's Foreign Policy

April 7, 2014
CIGI Papers No. 29
In the years since the January 2006 election, Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s three Conservative governments have pursued a foreign policy so unlike what came before that it could be called the big break. The big break — or the Conservative transformation of Canada’s foreign policy — has been heavily criticized by academics, former diplomats, politicians and journalists, but it has also had a few defenders.

Boxing with Elephants: Can Canada Punch above Its Weight in Global Financial Governance?

March 20, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 28
Canadians have long harboured a desire to “punch above their weight” in international diplomacy, an aspiration justified by Canada’s position in the world both geographically and culturally. This paper examines one aspect of that effort: Canada’s role in international financial governance, particularly within the International Monetary Fund.

A Blueprint for a Sovereign Debt Forum

March 12, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 27
This paper outlines a blueprint for the creation of a Sovereign Debt Forum (SDF). The SDF would provide a centre for continuous improvement of the processes for dealing with financially distressed sovereigns and a venue for proactive discussions between debtors and creditors to reach early understandings on treating specific sovereign crises.

Institutional Arrangements for Climate Finance

March 5, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 26
Jessica Boyle, David Runnalls, and Dave Sawyer
The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is unequivocal about the magnitude of the challenge posed by man-made climate change. If the world is to avoid exceeding the 2°C average increase in temperature agreed by governments in Copenhagen as the maximum safe level, it needs to move quickly to facilitate the transition to a lower-carbon economy.

Reforming the International Monetary System in the 1970s and 2000s: Would an SDR Substitution Account Have Worked?

February 11, 2014
Paper No. 9
Robert N. McCauley and Catherine R. Schenk
This paper analyzes the discussion of a substitution account in the 1970s and how the account might have performed had it been agreed in 1980. The substitution account would have allowed central banks to diversify away from the dollar into the IMF’s Special Drawing Right, comprised of US dollar, Deutschmark, French franc (later euro), Japanese yen and British pound, through transactions conducted off the market.

Vertically Integrated Peace Building and Community Violence Reduction in Haiti

February 4, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 25
Timothy Donais and Geoff Burt
Gang-driven violence in the urban slums of Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince, has been a preoccupation of international peace-building efforts for the past decade, yet continues to pose a serious threat to peace and stability in the country. These communities have, in recent years, been the site of an ongoing series of experiments, involving a range of different actors, aimed at reclaiming them from armed gangs; however, the isolated and fragmented nature of these interventions has reduced their cumulative impact.

The Equator Principles: Ten Teenage Years of Implementation and a Search for Outcome

January 30, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 24
Olaf Weber and Emmanuel Acheta
The Equator Principles (EPs) are codes of conduct for project finance on the sustainability impacts of a project and on the risk assessment procedures of financial institutions that have adopted the principles — Equator Principles Financial Institutions (EPFIs). The EPs were launched 10 years ago and have undergone three revisions, while the EPFIs have increased from 10 to 78 members in 2013.

Promoting the International Use of Emerging Country Currencies: The Case of Local Currency Debt Issuance for Latin America and the Caribbean

January 24, 2014
Paper No. 8
Andrew Powell
This paper focusses on the use of a currency to denominate liabilities such as loans or bonds — more precisely, the value of being able to issue debt externally in one’s own local currency. It considers, in particular, the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, arguing that global currency markets remain dominated by the US dollar and a very few other global currencies.

Canadian-Australian Opportunities for Defence Procurement and Industry Cooperation

January 24, 2014
CIGI Paper No. 22
Craig Stone
Diplomatic relations between Canada and Australia have existed for almost 75 years. The two countries share a colonial past with the British Empire and have similar political structures, and their militaries have been in the same locations on a number of occasions, most recently in Afghanistan. This paper explores the issue of whether or not there are opportunities for Canada and Australia to cooperate in the areas of defence procurement and the defence industrial base.