Policy Briefs

Policy briefs develop information and analysis, followed by recommendations, on policy-oriented topics. They are found useful by policy makers, policy specialists, the media and interested scholars.

Disasters and Dividends: An Asia-Pacific Strategy for Canada

October 20, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 17
Jesse MacLean, Andrew McCauley, and Emily Newcombe
Canada’s continued economic prosperity relies on the successful diversification of its markets, which requires a comprehensive strategy to improve trade ties with the Asia-Pacific, given the Canadian government’s argument that strong economic growth has made that region a key priority. The authors of this Jr. Fellows policy brief conclude that Canada can strengthen its relationship with the Asia-Pacific through its humanitarian assistance and disaster response.

Strengthening Canada's Copyright System: A Fairer Mechanism for Fair Use Claims

October 8, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 16
Cory Campbell and Scott Janz
Fair use provisions serve to counteract the restrictive and innovation-hampering effects of copyright, reflecting the evolving norms regarding the reasonable use of protected content. Despite the recent expansion of fair use by the Copyright Modernization Act, Canadian copyright law imposes excessive costs on users that legally interact with protected content.

Dual Citizenship: Reducing Governance and Protection Gaps

October 1, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 15
Busra Hacioglu, Alina Shams, Amy Wood, and Ruiqian Zhang
On December 29, 2013, the journalists Mohamed Fahmy, Peter Greste and Baher Mohamed were arbitrarily arrested and detained in Cairo, Egypt. This case brings to light the complex web of obligations and transnational legalities regarding dual citizenship, which come to the fore during times of conflict.

Ukraine: Stress at the IMF

October 1, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 49
In April 2014, in a departure from its normal aversion to lending to countries in conflict, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a US$17 billion loan to Ukraine to be disbursed over two years. At the time, Ukraine was three weeks away from a presidential election; engaged in combat with an armed separatist movement backed by Russia, its largest trading partner and supplier of energy; and experiencing a significant drain in foreign exchange reserves and bank deposits along with soaring yields on sovereign debt. The country was also reaping the returns of decades of economic mismanagement. Dire from both political and economic perspectives, the situation had the markings of a case where the IMF has the expertise to be usefully engaged, but there were also red flags demarcating circumstances that can hobble the IMF’s effectiveness.

The Role of the Informal Economy in Addressing Urban Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa

August 19, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 14
Elizabeth Fraser, Malambo Moonga, and Johanna Wilkes
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is facing high rates of urbanization and increasing food insecurity. The informal food economy addresses food insecurity by providing access to affordable food and significant employment opportunities to the urban poor in the SSA.

Responding to Health Challenges: The Role of Domestic Resource Mobilization

August 13, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 48
At least US$87 billion is needed to support the prevention, care and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in low- and middle-income African countries between 2014 and 2016. Much of the financing for these diseases previously came from international sources; however, implementing countries are progressively graduating from international support as their economies grow.

Consult, Command, Control, Contract: Adding a Fourth “C” to NATO’s Cyber Security

August 6, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 13
Justin Anstett and Rebekah Pullen
The lines between civilian and military are increasingly blurred, creating ambiguity under international law when private contractors engage in offensive cyber-security operations on behalf of states. These private security companies (PSCs) are being contracted for cyber security to engage in offensive cyber operations, but states should not contract PSCs for offensive cyber operations.

Education in Emergencies: The Case of the Dadaab Refugee Camps

July 29, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 47
Conflict in Somalia has caused millions to flee the country since 1990, many to Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camps, which have been in existence for 20 years and now hold over 520,000 refugees. To date, voluntary repatriation and local integration are not plausible durable solutions. This policy brief, authored by CIGI’s Hayley MacKinnon, sheds light on education within the Dadaab refugee camps, which still operate on an emergency basis by providing relief, but which fail to mobilize the resources required for longer-term development — known as the “relief-to-development” gap.

Power Shift and Renminbi Internationalization: Recommendations for the G20

July 25, 2014
CIGI Jr. Fellows Policy Brief No. 12
Raluca Diana Ardelean and Mengyun Zhang
China’s growing economic standing suggests a power shift for the twenty-first-century global economy, as exemplified through the internationalization of China’s currency, the renminbi (RMB). RMB internationalization can fill China’s financial integration gap by promoting faster internal financial reforms, stronger interconnectivity between trade and finance, and greater economic responsibility.

Infrastructure and Sustainable Development Goals in the BRICS-Led New Development Bank

July 21, 2014
CIGI Policy Brief No. 46
The presidents and foreign ministers of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries met in Fortaleza, Brazil on July 15 and signed a formal agreement to create the BRICS-led bank called the New Development Bank (NDB). The NDB will focus its lending on infrastructure and sustainable development projects; however, these two priorities are at least partially incompatible.