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In a policy briefing released Wednesday, Centre for International Governance Innovation senior fellow Jeff Rubin argued that building pipeline capacity to tidewater wouldn’t actually fetch higher prices for Canadian bitumen, because it is not a fungible product and ultimately has a limited number of end buyers. 

“It is an inferior crude with high sulphur content that must first be upgraded before most refineries can use it as a feedstock,” he wrote in the briefing.

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