In recent years we have witnessed terrorist attacks by radical Islamic networks on targets in the Middle East and now the West. Though these attacks have been denounced by mainstream Islamic revival and reform movements, the roots of radicalization within Muslim communities merits further exploration. Some of the questions we seek to address in dedicated panels include: What political and historical circumstances have shaped contemporary Islamic movements, and why do some Muslim groups adopt violent forms of political activism while others adhere to non-violent methods? How do we categorize organizations that may be radical and differentiate them from legitimate political parties? What factors have been most conducive to the development and transnational diffusion of radical Islamic! ideas, and what are the most effective barriers to the spread of these ideas in the diaspora communities of countries such as Canada? And how can Canadian as well as Western policies most effectively act to delegitimize radical Islamic ideologies at home and abroad, while supporting the rights of Muslim actors to participate in political processes? These are the questions that we hope this workshop can use to stimulate further panels and debates for a conference proposed for April, 2007 to take place at CIGI.