Energy is central to addressing major challenges of the 21st Century, such as climate change, economic and social development, human well-being, sustainable development, and global security. In 2005 a number of eminent scientists and policy makers, identified that a comprehensive, science-based assessment of the global energy system was needed if these challenges were to be realistically addressed. The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) is the result of this shared vision. Some 500 independent experts from all the regions of the world have contributed to GEA in a process similar to that adopted by the IPCC. The final GEA report examines the major global challenges and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing adequate, modern and affordable forms of energy; the plausible structure of future energy systems most suited to addressing the century’s challenges; and the policies and measures, institutions and capacities needed to realize sustainable energy futures. Ged Davis will review the main findings of the Global Energy Assessment and possible consequences for developing countries.