Scholars and policymakers speak frequently of the “lessons” of history, and yet, time and again, leaders appear to misapply history when attempting to grapple with contemporary or looming foreign policy problems. Why is drawing useful lessons from history so difficult? What are the obstacles? Are there ways of reducing the difficulties, or avoiding the obstacles? The speakers and commentators will grapple with these questions, drawing heavily upon their original research, primarily on U.S. foreign policy decision making.