Jean-François Bélanger is a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Political Science at the University of Waterloo working with Bessma Momani on questions of cybersecurity and populism. His book project, titled Why Competence Matters: Counter-Proliferation and Deterrence, focuses on the variation in the use of force against nascent proliferators. Using concepts from practice theory and applying them in a strategic setting, the book examines how competence in previous deterrence crises plays an important role in the decision by counter-proliferating states to use force or not to curb proliferation. He has published on questions of coercive diplomacy and nuclear weapons, cybersecurity and the protection of critical infrastructures, the North Korean nuclear program, and the India-China rivalry. Prior to joining the University of Waterloo, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the International Security Studies Center at Yale University from 2018 to 2020.