John Higginbotham is a senior fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation in Waterloo and the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University in Ottawa. John’s research focuses on Arctic economic and governance development and international relations, Canada’s ties with the United States and China in global context and North American Arctic marine transportation as the Arctic Ocean melts. John leads CIGI’s Global Security & Politics research project on the Arctic, including organizing action-oriented round tables and publications. John’s previous work with the Government of Canada, including lengthy international assignments, spanned more than 30 years. He was an assistant deputy minister in three departments, including for policy development at Global Affairs Canada, and served at Canadian embassies in Washington, Beijing and Hong Kong.