Canada, throughout its 150-year history, has adhered to and, at times, has had to vigorously defend the ideal of the rule of law among nations. On at least two occasions, Canada has played the role of determined promoter of necessary change in the law of the sea. Stepping outside its usual role of committed proponent of the established international legal order, Canada has chosen to act beyond the strict confines of existing rules to defend environmental values and promote a more effective governance regime. With the 1970 Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act and the 1995 Canada-EU Turbot Dispute, Canada made the calculated decision to take concrete action to protect its fragile Arctic waters and halt the depletion of vulnerable living resources off its Atlantic coast.
Canada's Influence on the Law of the Sea
Canada in International Law at 150 and Beyond Paper No. 7