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CIGI Papers

The Digital Trade Imbalance and Its Implications for Internet Governance

February 3, 2016
GCIG Paper No. 25
Susan Ariel Aaronson
The United States dominates both the global digital economy and digital trade. This paper explores the imbalance between the United States’ enthusiasm for and its major trade partners’ ambivalence toward the creation of a system of trade rules to govern cross-border information flows, and considers whether trade agreements, in fact, are the best place to address these issues.

The Final Few: Completing the Universal Membership of the IMF

February 1, 2016
CIGI Papers No. 89
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has 188 member countries. The United Nations has 193. The difference is not economically or politically trivial. Although none of the members missing from the IMF is a large country, two of the five are potentially important in their regions: Cuba and North Korea. What would it take to complete the process to have both countries included as IMF member countries? What are the obstacles to becoming members, and how can they be overcome?

Canadian Trade Negotiations in an Era of Deep Integration

February 1, 2016
CIGI Paper No. 88
The Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) is noteworthy for the Canadian provinces and territories’ expanded role and unprecedented involvement in the negotiation, at the request of their European Union partners. Why were Canadian provinces at the negotiating table for the first time for CETA? This paper will explore this question.

The Privatization of Human Rights: Illusions of Consent, Automation and Neutrality

January 26, 2016
GCIG Paper No. 24
Emily Taylor
The Internet enables the free flow of information on an unprecedented scale but increasingly the management of individuals’ fundamental rights, such as privacy and the mediation of free expression, is left in the hands of private actors. The popularity of a few web platforms across the globe confers on the providers both great power and heavy responsibilities. An underlying tension exists for those companies between self-regulation and being held accountable for rights violations by states. Solutions might include provision of paid alternatives, more sophisticated definition and handling of different types of data and all stakeholders' cooperation in developing realistic and robust processes for content moderation that comply with the rule of law.

Central Asia: Not in Our Backyard, Not a Hot Spot, Strategically Important

January 25, 2016
CIGI Paper No. 87
Richard E. Hoagland
Central Asia is strategically important to the West because of its neighbours, but not immediately. Western governments need to engage in Central Asia precisely to ensure that it does not become a hot spot and instead becomes, over time, ever more firmly embedded in the community of responsible nations.

Humanitarian Assistance and the Politics of Self-reliance: Uganda's Nakivale Refugee Settlement

December 18, 2015
CIGI Papers No. 86
Suzan Ilcan, Marcia Oliver, and Laura Connoy
Increasingly, refugees residing in refugee camps are living in protracted situations for which there are no quick remedies. Existing attempts to address protracted situations for refugees engage with the concept and practices of the Self-reliance Strategy (SRS). This paper focuses on the SRS in Uganda’s Nakivale Refugee Settlement. It draws attention to the strategy's disconnection from the social and economic relations within which refugees live in settlements, and its inability to provide refugees with sufficient access to social support and protection.

Where Does the Biggest Gorilla in the Room Sit? Milk, the United States and International Trade Negotiations

December 11, 2015
CIGI Paper No. 85
As Robert Reich, a former labor secretary under Bill Clinton, once asked, with reference to the United States, “Where does the biggest gorilla sit? Anywhere it likes.” Dairy has long been a protected sector in the United States, which has a history of constructing its own reality with respect to freeing up international trade in agricultural products, milk included, and of ignoring or renegotiating commitments when they did not suit the government of the day. This background paper explores the historical evolution of US trade and agricultural policy as seen through its position on the dairy file in international trade regulations.

Combatting Cyber Threats: CSIRTs and Fostering International Cooperation on Cybersecurity

December 8, 2015
GCIG Paper No. 23
This paper examines the role of computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs) in the emerging cyber regime complex and asks what might be driving the lack of trust and information sharing within the community. The commercialization of cyber security and threat vulnerabilities, the Internet’s development as a new power domain, the growth of the CSIRT community and the emergence of a cyber regime complex are examined as factors that are giving rise to and exacerbating existing problems around information sharing and trust.

Much Ado about Nothing? The RMB's Inclusion in the SDR Basket

December 4, 2015
CIGI Paper No. 84
The International Monetary Fund recently concluded its quinquennial review of the composition of the Special Drawing Right (SDR), accepting the Chinese currency into the SDR basket alongside four major international currencies — the US dollar, the euro, the British pound and the Japanese yen. The Chinese government has spent a great deal of energy and political capital to achieve this outcome. This policy paper explains China’s interest in this seemingly exotic and technical pursuit, identifying the political and economic motivations underlying this initiative.

Geopolitics at the World's Pivot: Exploring Central Asia's Security Challenges

November 30, 2015
CIGI Paper No. 80
This paper introduces Central Asia’s geopolitical significance and explores several inter-related security challenges. For each security issue, this paper provides a brief overview of the issue, explains why or how it developed and looks at the issue’s significance within the broader security environment. The paper then turns to Canada’s role in Central Asia and addresses opportunities to expand engagement in the security realm.
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