Iraq’s streets are unsafe, its people tormented, and its identity as a state challenged from within and without. For some, Iraq is synonymous with internal hatred, bloodshed and sectarianism. The contributors to this book know another Iraq: a country that was once full of hope and achievement and that boasted one of the most educated workforces in its region — a cosmopolitan secular society with a great tradition of artisans, poets and intellectuals. The memory of that Iraq inspired the editors and contributors to this volume to explore the challenges of building a viable Iraqi state and bringing reconciliation and normalcy to Iraq’s multi-ethnic population. Edited by former CIGI Senior Visiting Fellow Mokhtar Lamani and CIGI Senior Fellow Bessma Momani, the book examines the internal factors affecting national identity and social cohesion in Iraq and assesses the external factors influencing the country’s development after years of upheaval.