This paper examines education and its digital transition, mindful of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. It discusses a variety of perspectives and trends, arguing that the future of education should be part of the global debate on Internet governance. It posits that Internet governance offers a new form of legitimacy for children and young people to go beyond their current “protected” status. A digital transition from education 2.0 (where information and communication technology are support tools) to education 3.0 (where media and information literacy and Internet governance are the new basics) can provide children with competencies for cooperation, creativity and social innovation. It can also nurture their human rights and understanding of shared values, which, in turn, will help to build more inclusive societies. The paper also considers the risks of inaction in the transition to education 3.0, drawing attention to a crucial element for effective change: the need to raise awareness and to support teachers, students and public authorities alike to embrace the notion of education 3.0, to consider the tools and resources needed and to engage in the phased adjustments needed at all levels of its governance. Ten recommendations are put forward, including the creation of the position of UN Special Rapporteur on education 3.0 for children and young people’s sustainable digital development, which could help to coordinate and promote coherent and dynamic engagement of all stakeholders.