It is almost impossible to read the news without coming across a lead story cataloguing the latest cyber breach or misuse of data. Intellectual property is being stolen from companies at an alarming rate. Foreign actors are meddling in elections. Criminals use the dark recesses of the internet to sell drugs, guns and even people. The volume of these events lays bare the paradox of the digital economy and cyber security. On one hand, technology has led to convenience, efficiency and wealth creation. On the other hand, this great push to digitize society has meant building inherent vulnerability into the core of the economic model. This is all taking place atop a deeply fragmented and underdeveloped system of global rules. Given this paradox, the purpose behind this essay series on security in cyberspace, first published online in spring 2019, is threefold. First, it brings together an interdisciplinary team, including the private sector, academics and leading experts to provide creative ideas and fresh thinking in these emergent areas surrounding data governance, cyber security and new technology. Second, it aims to advance a public policy debate that recognizes that while cyber security threats are increasing in both number and sophistication, there is economic potential for Canadian firms to capitalize on a growing market. Third, it argues for the advancement of a more stable international institutional order. The international rules-based system in cyberspace is still in its infancy, and innovative thinking is needed to make sure that Canada can play a leadership role in crafting the governance architecture. 

About the Authors

A practising lawyer, Aaron Shull is CIGI’s managing director and general counsel. In addition to advising on a range of domestic legal and corporate matters, he has substantive expertise in international law, global security and internet governance.

Andre Boysen is a CIGI senior fellow and chief identity officer at SecureKey. Recognized as a global leader on identity, privacy, digital transformation and blockchain, Andre is also a regular speaker, contributing author and media commentator. 

Stephanie Carvin is an assistant professor of international relations at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University. She researches and teaches in the area of international and national security and critical infrastructure protection. Stephanie holds a Ph.D. in international relations from the London School of Economics. From 2012 to 2015, she was a national security analyst with the Government of Canada.

Neil Desai is an executive with Magnet Forensics, and a senior fellow at CIGI and at the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy.

Robert (Bob) Fay is the managing director of digital economy at CIGI. The research under his direction assesses and provides policy recommendations for the complex global governance issues arising from digital technologies.

Melissa Hathaway is president of Hathaway Global Strategies LLC and a member of CIGI’s Board of Directors.

Byron Holland is president and CEO of the Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA), which manages the .ca top-level domain (TLD) on behalf of Canadians. Since joining in 2008, Byron established CIRA as a world-class, innovative registry. He is a respected leader in the global internet governance ecosystem, serving in a variety of leadership positions in the international internet governance and policy world, including within the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Byron is also a recognized leader in the Canadian internet community, and is a frequent commenter on domestic internet policy and technical issues.

Eric Jardine is a CIGI fellow and an assistant professor of political science at Virginia Tech. Eric researches the uses and abuses of the dark Web, measuring trends in cyber security, how people adapt to changing risk perceptions when using new security technologies, and the politics surrounding anonymity-granting technologies and encryption.

Elizabeth F. Judge is professor of law and a member of the Centre for Law, Technology and Society at the Faculty of Law at the University of Ottawa, where she specializes in intersections of law, technology and policy. 

Christian Leuprecht is the Class of 1965 Professor in Leadership in the Department of Political Science and Economics at the Royal Military College of Canada.

David Lyon is director of the Surveillance Studies Centre, and professor of sociology and professor of law at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario. Educated at the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom, David has been studying surveillance since the mid-1980s. Credited with spearheading the field of surveillance studies, he has produced a steady stream of books and articles.

Tyson Macaulay is a veteran of the cybersecurity industry with more than 25 years of technical and international management experience. As chief product officer at InfoSec Global, Tyson sets direction and strategy for all products, including full accountability for engineering and services, research and development, marketing and customer satisfaction. 

Michael Mason is the VP of product on the Aion Project, driving the product road map for public use of their open-source blockchain protocol. He has spent his career building technology products in fintech and gaming for companies such as Wave, The New York Times and Mattel.

Michele Mosca is an award-winning researcher in cryptography and quantum computing, and has initiated numerous multidisciplinary collaborations that helped create the quantum-safe opportunity for Canada. He started and grew the quantum computing effort at the University of Waterloo, eventually co-founding the Institute for Quantum Computing.

Bill Munson is director, research and policy analysis at Quantum-Safe Canada. He is a policy analyst who, prior to joining Quantum-Safe Canada, spent more than 20 years with the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC), where he established and ran the highly regarded ITAC Cyber Security Forum from 2000 to 2015.

Michael Pal is an associate professor in the Faculty of Law at the University of Ottawa, where he is the director of the Public Law Group. He specializes in the comparative law of democracy and comparative constitutional law. He has advised governments at all levels on election and constitutional law.

Matthew Spoke is the founder of the Aion Foundation, an open-source non-profit focused on building the underlying infrastructure required by developers to build censorship resistant, decentralized applications that put users first. He is also the founder and director of the Blockchain Technology Coalition of Canada, where he lends his time to help reduce regulatory uncertainty and protect consumers.

Wally Trenholm is a senior fellow with CIGI, where he contributes his expertise on artificial intelligence (AI), data governance and international security. He is CEO of Sightline Innovation and a software architect with over 25 years of experience in areas of operations including AI, data governance, distributed computing systems and sensing technologies, focusing on applications in commercial, legal, financial and government use cases. 

Paul Vallée is a CIGI senior fellow and the founder and CEO of Tehama.

Christopher S. Yoo is a CIGI senior fellow and the John H. Chestnut Professor of Law, Communication, and Computer Information Science and the founding director of the Center for Technology, Innovation and Competition at the University of Pennsylvania.