While the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been successful, focussing attention and mobilizing resources, more needs to be done. An innovative project, co-hosted by CIGI and the Korea Development Institute, has examined what goals should succeed the MDGs. This paper, based on a series of reports and discussions on the post-2015 development agenda that took place over the past two-and-a-half years, reviews the history of the MDGs, describes the current context, lists the premises and starting points and provides a brief summary of the evolution of the project’s view. The paper concludes with some observations on each of the 10 recommended goals. The authors argue that to respond to emerging global and national challenges, the post-2015 development agenda should be based on a comprehensive and holistic notion of development. Future goals must become sustainable one-world goals that apply to poor and rich countries alike.