This paper investigates the political economy foundations of International Monetary Fund (IMF) surveillance by developing a taxonomy that accounts for its differential impact across the membership and examine its rationale in light of how surveillance has historically affected members' economic policies. With powerful member countries now pressing for the IMF to strengthen surveillance, we identify the factors that would enable it to affect the policies of its member countries, exploring the impact that IMF's internal governance has on the effectiveness of both bilateral and multilateral surveillance and contrasting it with the experience of select international organizations.