The Arab Spring taking root across the Middle East is bringing unprecedented economic change and a high level of instability to the region. An edialogue held by CIGI and the United States Institute of Peace provided a forum for a lively exchange of ideas on the application of security sector reform (SSR) in Africa and the Middle East. There was some consensus among the participants that a window of opportunity exists for donors to provide meaningful SSR assistance in the region, but there were differences over the composition, timing and pace the assistance should take. This report summarizes some of the questions and discussion prompted by the edialogue, and considers possible entry points and policy directions for reform.